Reviews sampling methods used in surveys: simple random sampling, systematic sampling, stratification, cluster and multi-stage sampling, sampling with probability proportional to size, two-phase sampling, replicated sampling, panel designs, and non-probability sampling. Kalton discusses issues of practical implementation, including frame problems and non-response, and gives examples of sample designs for a national face-to-face interview survey and for a telephone survey. He also treats the use of weights in survey analysis, the computation of sampling errors with complex sampling designs, and the determination of sample size.

Probability Proportional to Size Sampling

The last section assumed that the clusters were of equal size, but this is rarely so in practice. The natural groupings that the sampler takes advantage of to serve as clusters almost always vary in size, often in a major way. The classes in a high school will not all contain 24 students, but may perhaps vary between 20 and 30; city blocks vary much more in the number of households they contain, as also do counties (which are frequently used as PSUs for national samples in the United States). The difficulties this variation in size creates will now be explained and methods will be described by which these difficulties can be overcome.

For ease of exposition we will use an artificially ...

locked icon

Sign in to access this content

Get a 30 day FREE TRIAL

  • Watch videos from a variety of sources bringing classroom topics to life
  • Read modern, diverse business cases
  • Explore hundreds of books and reference titles