Reviews sampling methods used in surveys: simple random sampling, systematic sampling, stratification, cluster and multi-stage sampling, sampling with probability proportional to size, two-phase sampling, replicated sampling, panel designs, and non-probability sampling. Kalton discusses issues of practical implementation, including frame problems and non-response, and gives examples of sample designs for a national face-to-face interview survey and for a telephone survey. He also treats the use of weights in survey analysis, the computation of sampling errors with complex sampling designs, and the determination of sample size.
Although the use of a table of random numbers to select the simple random sample of 250 students as discussed in the previous section was manageable, the operation was nevertheless somewhat laborious. Moreover, it would have been more laborious had the population been larger, the sample been larger, or the list of students not been ordered by identification numbers. The widely used method of systematic sampling provides a means of substantially reducing the effort required for sample selection. Systematic sampling is easy to apply, involving simply taking every kth element after a random start.
As a simple example, suppose that a sample of 250 students is required from a school with 2000 students. The sampling fraction is 250/2000, or 1 in 8. A systematic sample ...