Reviews sampling methods used in surveys: simple random sampling, systematic sampling, stratification, cluster and multi-stage sampling, sampling with probability proportional to size, two-phase sampling, replicated sampling, panel designs, and non-probability sampling. Kalton discusses issues of practical implementation, including frame problems and non-response, and gives examples of sample designs for a national face-to-face interview survey and for a telephone survey. He also treats the use of weights in survey analysis, the computation of sampling errors with complex sampling designs, and the determination of sample size.

Concluding Remarks

Survey sampling is a highly specialized and developed component of the survey process. There is a wide range of techniques available, and numerous pitfalls to avoid. The sampling novice needs to proceed with great caution, since it is all too easy for the utility of survey results to be seriously marred by mistakes made in sample design. For this reason, when embarking on a survey, the wisest course for a researcher with limited sampling knowledge is to consult an experienced practicing survey statistician.

There is a substantial body of both theoretical and practical literature on survey sampling. For reasons of space this paper presents only a broad overview of the subject, with the limited aim of enabling the reader to understand and appreciate the ...

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