Reviews sampling methods used in surveys: simple random sampling, systematic sampling, stratification, cluster and multi-stage sampling, sampling with probability proportional to size, two-phase sampling, replicated sampling, panel designs, and non-probability sampling. Kalton discusses issues of practical implementation, including frame problems and non-response, and gives examples of sample designs for a national face-to-face interview survey and for a telephone survey. He also treats the use of weights in survey analysis, the computation of sampling errors with complex sampling designs, and the determination of sample size.
[Page 82]One of the first questions that arises in sample design is, “What sample size is needed?” The discussion of this question has been left until now because it depends on several aspects of the preceding material.
To describe the basic ideas, consider a simple example of a face-to-face interview survey that is to be conducted to estimate the percentage of a city's population of 15,000 adults who say they would make use of a new library if one were built. To determine an appropriate sample size, it is first necessary to specify the degree of precision required for the estimator. This is no easy task, and initially the degree of precision required is often overstated. Suppose, for instance, the initial specification calls for an ...