This student orientated guide to structural equation modeling promotes theoretical understanding and inspires students with the confidence to successfully apply SEM. Assuming no previous experience, and a minimum of mathematical knowledge, this is an invaluable companion for students taking introductory SEM courses in any discipline. Niels Blunch shines a light on each step of the structural equation modeling process, providing a detailed introduction to SPSS and EQS with a focus on EQS’ excellent graphical interface. He also sets out best practice for data entry and programming, and uses real life data to show how SEM is applied in research. The book includes:  • Learning objectives, key concepts and questions for further discussion in each chapter.  • Helpful diagrams and screenshots to expand on concepts covered in the texts.  • A wide variety of examples from multiple disciplines and real world contexts.  • Exercises for each chapter on an accompanying companion website.  • A detailed glossary. Clear, engaging and built around key software, this is an ideal introduction for anyone new to SEM.

Models with Only Manifest Variables

Models with Only Manifest Variables

In this chapter you will be introduced to acyclic and cyclic models with only manifest variables.

As mentioned in Chapter 1, these models are commonly known as path models, and in economics as simultaneous equation models or econometric models.

You will first learn how to analyze acyclic models. You will meet two sufficient rules for identification and then be led through a simple example in which you will learn how to interpret the very extensive output from EQS, including the various fit measures you will find in the output.

Then we turn to cyclic models. The identification problem – which is much more of a problem in this kind of model – is illustrated using the cigarette advertising example from Chapter 1.

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