This student orientated guide to structural equation modeling promotes theoretical understanding and inspires students with the confidence to successfully apply SEM. Assuming no previous experience, and a minimum of mathematical knowledge, this is an invaluable companion for students taking introductory SEM courses in any discipline. Niels Blunch shines a light on each step of the structural equation modeling process, providing a detailed introduction to SPSS and EQS with a focus on EQS’ excellent graphical interface. He also sets out best practice for data entry and programming, and uses real life data to show how SEM is applied in research. The book includes:  • Learning objectives, key concepts and questions for further discussion in each chapter.  • Helpful diagrams and screenshots to expand on concepts covered in the texts.  • A wide variety of examples from multiple disciplines and real world contexts.  • Exercises for each chapter on an accompanying companion website.  • A detailed glossary. Clear, engaging and built around key software, this is an ideal introduction for anyone new to SEM.

Measuring Your Variables: Reliability and Validity

Measuring Your Variables: Reliability and Validity

The concepts in your model will usually be rather diffuse (attitude, skill, preference, democracy), i.e. concepts for which no generally agreed measuring instruments exist. In such situations, therefore, you have to make your own measuring instruments – be they questions in a questionnaire or some sort of test.

The first requirement for such an instrument is that if you repeat the measurement under identical conditions, then you will end up with nearly the same result: your instrument must be reliable.

Another requirement – which seems just as obvious – is that the instrument should measure exactly what it is intended to measure and nothing else: the instrument must be valid.

Reliability and validity are the two main standards by which we ...

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