This student orientated guide to structural equation modeling promotes theoretical understanding and inspires students with the confidence to successfully apply SEM. Assuming no previous experience, and a minimum of mathematical knowledge, this is an invaluable companion for students taking introductory SEM courses in any discipline. Niels Blunch shines a light on each step of the structural equation modeling process, providing a detailed introduction to SPSS and EQS with a focus on EQS’ excellent graphical interface. He also sets out best practice for data entry and programming, and uses real life data to show how SEM is applied in research. The book includes: • Learning objectives, key concepts and questions for further discussion in each chapter. • Helpful diagrams and screenshots to expand on concepts covered in the texts. • A wide variety of examples from multiple disciplines and real world contexts. • Exercises for each chapter on an accompanying companion website. • A detailed glossary. Clear, engaging and built around key software, this is an ideal introduction for anyone new to SEM.
The General Model
The General Model
In this chapter the structural model (Chapter 6) and the measurement model (Chapter 7) are brought together to form the general structural equation model.
This model is introduced by way of Example 4.1, which is modified by letting the structural variables be latent instead of manifest. After this simple example has demonstrated the advantages of basing your analyses on latent variable models, we move on to a larger example.
In this example you will learn the two-step strategy: separate analyses of the measurement and structural models. Among other things, you will also learn how to analyze indirect effects, i.e. effects that are mediated by other variables.
Next you will look at a time series model, which has one real advantage compared with cross-section models: ...