This comprehensive Second Edition offers readers a complete guide to carrying out research projects involving structural equation modeling (SEM). Updated to include extensive analysis of AMOS' graphical interface, a new chapter on latent curve models and detailed explanations of the structural equation modeling process, this Second Edition is the ideal guide for those new to the field. The book includes: •Learning objectives, key concepts and questions for further discussion in each chapter •Helpful diagrams and screenshots to expand on concepts covered in the texts •Real life examples from a variety of disciplines to show hoe SEM is applied in real research contexts •Exercises for each chapter on an accompanying companion website •A new glossary at the end of book Assuming no previous experience of the subject, and a minimum of mathematical knowledge, this is the ideal guide for those new to SEM and an invaluable companion for students taking introductory SEM courses in any discipline.

Measuring your Variables: Reliability and Validity

The concepts in your model will usually be rather diffuse (attitude, skill, preference, democracy), i.e. concepts for which no generally agreed measuring instruments exist. In such situations, therefore, you have to make your own measuring instruments - be they questions in a questionnaire or some sort of test.

The first requirement for such an instrument is that if you repeat the measurement under identical conditions, then you will end up with nearly the same result: your instrument must be reliable.

Another requirement - which seems just as obvious - is that the instrument should measure exactly what it is intended to measure and nothing else: the instrument must be valid.

Reliability and validity are the two main standards by which we ...

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