Using a truly accessible and reader-friendly approach, this comprehensive introduction to statistics redefines the way statistics can be taught and learned. Unlike other books that merely focus on procedures, Reid’s approach balances development of critical thinking skills with application of those skills to contemporary statistical analysis. He goes beyond simply presenting techniques by focusing on the key concepts readers need to master in order to ensure their long-term success. Indeed, this exciting new book offers the perfect foundation upon which readers can build as their studies and careers progress to more advanced forms of statistics. Keeping computational challenges to a minimum, Reid shows readers not only how to conduct a variety of commonly used statistical procedures, but also when each procedure should be utilized and how they are related. Following a review of descriptive statistics, he begins his discussion of inferential statistics with a two-chapter examination of the Chi Square test to introduce students to hypothesis testing, the importance of determining effect size, and the need for post hoc tests. When more complex procedures related to interval/ratio data are covered, students already have a solid understanding of the foundational concepts involved. Exploring challenging topics in an engaging and easy-to-follow manner, Reid builds concepts logically and supports learning through robust pedagogical tools, the use of SPSS, numerous examples, historical quotations, insightful questions, and helpful progress checks.

Finding Differences With Interval and Ratio Data—I : The One-Sample z Test and the One-Sample t Test

Finding Differences With Interval and Ratio Data—I : The One-Sample z Test and the One-Sample t Test

Maturity is the capacity to endure uncertainty.

—John Finley

In Chapter 6, we began a description of the scientific method. In Chapters 7 and 8, we introduced our discussion of inferential statistical procedures with the chi-square test, which utilizes nominal data. In the current chapter, we begin the examination of the inferential statistical procedures used with interval and ratio data (the discussion of two inferential statistical procedures used with ordinal data is given in Appendixes A and B). Our review of the inferential statistical procedures for interval and ratio data will be proceeding down the final column of Table 9.1. With interval and ratio (as well as ordinal) data, ...