The Second Edition of Interpreting Quantitative Data with IBM SPSS Statistics is an invaluable resource for students analyzing qualitative data with IBM SPSS Statistics for the first time. The book clearly sets out a range of statistical techniques and their common applications, explaining their logic and links to the research process. It also shows how IBM SPSS Statistics can be used as a tool to aid analysis. Key Features of the Second Edition: • New chapters on ANOVA Factor Analysis and General Multilinear Model • IBM SPSS Statistics lab sessions following each chapter which demonstrate how IBM SPSS Statistics can be used in practice • Sets of exercises and ‘real-life’ examples to aid teaching and learning • Lists of key terms and further reading to enhance students' understanding • An improved text design making the book easier to navigate


The purpose of this chapter is to explain the basic reasoning of inferential statistics, and then to show how confidence statements can be made and interpreted. The calculations of the margins of errors and the relationship between the confidence level and the margin of error are also shown. The chapter focuses on the estimation of a mean and of a proportion.

After studying this chapter, you should know:

  • the meaning of inference in statistics;
  • the notion of margin of error and probability of error;
  • how to produce and interpret confidence statements involving means or proportions;
  • how to determine the margin of error using either tables or formulas;
  • how to determine the size of the sample needed to achieve a certain precision;
  • that if we wish to increase the degree ...
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