What statistical test should I use for this kind of data? How do I set up the data? What parameters should I specify when ordering the test? How do I interpret the results? Herschel Knapp’s friendly and approachable guide to real-world statistics answers these questions. Intermediate Statistics Using SPSS is not about abstract statistical theory or the derivation or memorization of statistical formulas–it is about applied statistics. With jargon-free language and clear processing instructions, this text covers the most common statistical functions–from basic to more advanced. Practical exercises at the conclusion of each chapter offer students an opportunity to process viable data sets, write cohesive abstracts in APA style, and build a thorough comprehension of the statistical process. Students will learn by doing with this truly practical approach to statistics. Free downloadable tutorial videos provide an overview of each statistical method!

# Research Principles

### Research Principles

The scientific mind does not so much

—Claude Levi-Strauss

### Learning Objectives

Upon completing this chapter, you will be able to do the following:

• Discuss the rationale for using statistics.
• Identify various forms of research questions.
• Differentiate between control and treatment groups.
• Comprehend the rationale for random assignment.
• Understand the basis for hypothesis formulation.
• Understand the fundamentals of reading statistical outcomes.
• Appropriately accept/reject hypotheses based on statistical outcomes.
• Understand the four levels of measure.
• Determine the variable type: categorical or continuous.

### Overview—Research Principles

This chapter introduces statistical concepts that will be used throughout this book. Applying statistics involves more than just processing tables of numbers; it involves being curious and assembling mindful questions in an attempt to better understand what is going on in a setting. As you ...