What statistical test should I use for this kind of data? How do I set up the data? What parameters should I specify when ordering the test? How do I interpret the results? Herschel Knapp’s friendly and approachable guide to real-world statistics answers these questions. Intermediate Statistics Using SPSS is not about abstract statistical theory or the derivation or memorization of statistical formulas–it is about applied statistics. With jargon-free language and clear processing instructions, this text covers the most common statistical functions–from basic to more advanced. Practical exercises at the conclusion of each chapter offer students an opportunity to process viable data sets, write cohesive abstracts in APA style, and build a thorough comprehension of the statistical process. Students will learn by doing with this truly practical approach to statistics. Free downloadable tutorial videos provide an overview of each statistical method!


Some people are passionate about aisles, others about window seats.

—Terry Jones

Learning Objectives

Upon completing this chapter, you will be able to do the following:

  • Determine when it is appropriate to run a chi-square test.
  • Identify dichotomous and polychotomous variables.
  • Verify that the data meet the criteria for running a chi-square test: n ≥ 5 per cell.
  • Order a chi-square test: table and bar chart.
  • Interpret the test results.
  • Resolve the hypotheses.
  • Write an appropriate abstract.
  • Calculate the % formula.

When to Use This Statistic

Guidelines for Selecting the Chi-Square Test

Overview: This statistic indicates if there is an association between two categorical variables.

Variables: This statistic requires two categorical variables for each record.

Results: In a survey of favorite ice cream flavors, we found that girls favored chocolate (48% chocolate, 22% strawberry, 30% vanilla), whereas boys ...

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