What statistical test should I use for this kind of data? How do I set up the data? What parameters should I specify when ordering the test? How do I interpret the results? Herschel Knapp’s friendly and approachable guide to real-world statistics answers these questions. Intermediate Statistics Using SPSS is not about abstract statistical theory or the derivation or memorization of statistical formulas–it is about applied statistics. With jargon-free language and clear processing instructions, this text covers the most common statistical functions–from basic to more advanced. Practical exercises at the conclusion of each chapter offer students an opportunity to process viable data sets, write cohesive abstracts in APA style, and build a thorough comprehension of the statistical process. Students will learn by doing with this truly practical approach to statistics. Free downloadable tutorial videos provide an overview of each statistical method!


Timing has a lot to do with the outcome of a rain dance.

—Cowboy proverb

Learning Objectives

Upon completing this chapter, you will be able to do the following:

  • Determine when it is appropriate to run an ANCOVA test.
  • Comprehend the characteristics of confounding variables (covariates).
  • Verify that the data meet the criteria for ANCOVA processing: homogeneity of regression slopes and homogeneity of variance (Levene’s test).
  • Order an ANCOVA test.
  • Derive results from the estimates and pairwise comparisons tables.
  • Resolve the hypotheses.
  • Write an appropriate abstract.

When to Use This Statistic

Guidelines for Selecting the ANCOVA Test

Overview: This statistic is for designs that involve more than two groups to determine which group(s) (if any) outperformed another taking into account the covariate that is expected to influence the outcome.

Variables: This statistic requires three variables for ...

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