In addition to hundreds of new references features new to this edition include: a comprehensive introduction to qualitative methods including a review of existing computer applications for collecting and analyzing data; the latest information about the use of computers and online research techniques, including the use of the Internet to locate actual research instruments and journal articles; updated coverage on new scales, internal and external validity, and new analytic techniques with extensive references on each; abstracts, citations and subject groupings by measurement tool of the last five years of the American Sociological Review, Social Psychology Quarterly, and the American Journal of Sociology; extensive coverage of how to prepare manuscripts for publication, including a list of all journals covered by Sociological Abstracts along with the editorial office address and URL for each entry; new coverage of ethical issues; expansion of social indicators to include international coverage; discussion of the importance of policy research with presentation and discussion of specific models as an adjunct to both applied and basic research techniques; and the addition of an index to facilitate the reader's ability to quickly locate a topic.

An Overview of Tests of the Difference Between Means

An Overview of Tests of the Difference Between Means

A summary of the more common measures of testing for group differences would include a simple t test for a pair of independent or dependent means and an F test for evaluating the difference between more than two means. The F test (named after R. A. Fisher) is also called analysis of variance (ANOVA).

6.6.1 The t Value for a Test of Independent Means

The t value is computed through comparing the variance that is attributable to between-group variance to that attributable to within-group variance. The raw score formula for a test of independent groups, where ...

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