In addition to hundreds of new references features new to this edition include: a comprehensive introduction to qualitative methods including a review of existing computer applications for collecting and analyzing data; the latest information about the use of computers and online research techniques, including the use of the Internet to locate actual research instruments and journal articles; updated coverage on new scales, internal and external validity, and new analytic techniques with extensive references on each; abstracts, citations and subject groupings by measurement tool of the last five years of the American Sociological Review, Social Psychology Quarterly, and the American Journal of Sociology; extensive coverage of how to prepare manuscripts for publication, including a list of all journals covered by Sociological Abstracts along with the editorial office address and URL for each entry; new coverage of ethical issues; expansion of social indicators to include international coverage; discussion of the importance of policy research with presentation and discussion of specific models as an adjunct to both applied and basic research techniques; and the addition of an index to facilitate the reader's ability to quickly locate a topic.

An Overview of Measures of Association

An Overview of Measures of Association

The more common measures of association include Pearson's product-moment r, the correlation ratio eta, gamma (Γ), Spearman's rank difference coefficient rho (ρ), lambda (Λ), and the multiple correlation R. Consult the bibliography in Section 6.12.

Table 6.2 summarizes common measures of association. Because a major object of scientific inquiry is to discover relationships, it has become standard training for scientists to learn how to use these measures.

6.5.1 The Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient

The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient is computed through examination of the proportion of variance that is shared by variables. The raw score formula is



rxy = the correlation coefficient between ...

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