In addition to hundreds of new references features new to this edition include: a comprehensive introduction to qualitative methods including a review of existing computer applications for collecting and analyzing data; the latest information about the use of computers and online research techniques, including the use of the Internet to locate actual research instruments and journal articles; updated coverage on new scales, internal and external validity, and new analytic techniques with extensive references on each; abstracts, citations and subject groupings by measurement tool of the last five years of the American Sociological Review, Social Psychology Quarterly, and the American Journal of Sociology; extensive coverage of how to prepare manuscripts for publication, including a list of all journals covered by Sociological Abstracts along with the editorial office address and URL for each entry; new coverage of ethical issues; expansion of social indicators to include international coverage; discussion of the importance of policy research with presentation and discussion of specific models as an adjunct to both applied and basic research techniques; and the addition of an index to facilitate the reader's ability to quickly locate a topic.

Summary of Common Measures of Association and Group Differences

Summary of Common Measures of Association and Group Differences

Statistical methods enable us to study and to describe precisely averages, differences, and relationships and to assign the probability that outcomes are due to chance or some other factor (such as the manipulation of the independent variable).

The number of statistical tests available has risen considerably in the past 30 years and has become so large that even professional statisticians can't keep all of them at their fingertips. (See Kanji [1993], for more information.) As these tests have become more numerous, both the degree of precision has improved and the kinds of hypotheses ...

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