Providing cutting-edge perspectives and real-world insights into the greater utility of probability and its applications, the Handbook of Probability offers an equal balance of theory and direct applications in a non-technical, yet comprehensive, format.

Causation and Causal Inference: Defining, Identifying, and Estimating Causal Effects



This chapter is an introduction to the modern statistical literature on causal inference, which began when Rubin (1974, 1977, 1978, 1980) rediscovered Neyman's (1923/1990) potential outcomes notation and extended ...

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