Evaluators have always worked in diverse communities, and the programs they evaluate are designed to address often intractable socio-political and economic issues. Evaluations that explicitly aim to be more responsive to culture and cultural context are, however, a more recent phenomenon. In this book, Jill Anne Chouinard and Fiona Cram utilize a conceptual framework that foregrounds culture in social inquiry, and then uses that framework to analyze empirical studies across three distinct cultural domains of evaluation practice (Western, Indigenous and international development). Culturally Responsive Approaches to Evaluation provide a comparative analysis of these studies and discuss lessons drawn from them in order to help evaluators extend their current thinking and practice. They conclude with an agenda for future research.

The Indigenous Context

Overview of Chapter

The question of who is indigenous seems to vex nonindigenous peoples around the world, with many authors beginning their discussions of indigenous research and evaluation with some discourse about there being no standard definition of indigenous peoples. By contrast, the International Labour Organisation (ILO) Convention No.169 takes a pragmatic approach and provides subjective and objective criteria for identifying indigenous peoples and tribal peoples (Table 4.1). The ILO also acknowledges the many other names that indigenous and tribal people are known by.

Table 4.1 ■ Criteria for Identifying Indigenous and Tribal Peoples

Subjective Criteria

Objective Criteria

Indigenous peoples

Self-identification as belonging to an indigenous people

Descent is from populations who inhabited the country or geographical region at the time of conquest, colonization, or establishment of present ...

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