Conducting Health Research: Principles, Process, and Methods presents an integrated and practical introduction to the principles and strategies for planning, implementing, reporting, and assessing health sciences research. Comprehensive in its breadth and depth, with an accessible writing style, this text prepares students in public health and related fields to be adept researchers and consumers of health research. Through real-world examples and step-by-step guidance, Frederick J. Kviz provides students with the skills they need to: identify and evaluate research strengths and limitations as practitioners; to actually perform the various core aspects of research; and to choose among alternative methods when making decisions about health practice, policy, and future research needs.

Developing a Measurement Instrument

Developing a Measurement Instrument

Developing a Measurement Instrument

Two young girls in braids are seen standing in front of a blackboard. The girls on the left holds a book as she marks the other girl’s height on the blackboard with some chalk. The other girl stands smiling, with her arms folded in front of her.

Learning Objectives

After studying Chapter 9, the reader should be able to:

  • Implement the instrument development process
  • Assess the advantages and disadvantages of using an existing instrument
  • Develop a single-item rating scale
  • Decide when to use a bipolar versus a unipolar rating scale
  • Combine single-item scales to form a multiple-item scale


Some measurement instruments used in research are familiar from everyday applications, such as a clock to measure travel time and a ruler to measure a person’s height. In the research context, a measurement instrument is a method for collecting and recording observations. It is not necessarily a physical device, and it may take many forms, such as a thermometer, photographs of public park conditions, self-ratings of health status, or notes about observations of ...

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