Conducting Health Research: Principles, Process, and Methods presents an integrated and practical introduction to the principles and strategies for planning, implementing, reporting, and assessing health sciences research. Comprehensive in its breadth and depth, with an accessible writing style, this text prepares students in public health and related fields to be adept researchers and consumers of health research. Through real-world examples and step-by-step guidance, Frederick J. Kviz provides students with the skills they need to: identify and evaluate research strengths and limitations as practitioners; to actually perform the various core aspects of research; and to choose among alternative methods when making decisions about health practice, policy, and future research needs.

Research Design Diagrams and Components

Research Design Diagrams and Components

Research Design Diagrams and Components

A group of people are seen sitting around a table, in discussion. One of the women talks while the other three people look at her. Cups and saucers, glasses of water and papers are seen on the table as well as a large window behind them.

Learning Objectives

After studying Chapter 4, the reader should be able to:

  • Identify the four basic components in a research design diagram
  • Draw and interpret a research design diagram
  • Appropriately employ one-group and multiple-group designs
  • Apply the control group model to simulate the counterfactual model
  • Address ethical considerations related to control group conditions
  • Apply strategies for specifying the timing of observation points


A research design is the pattern for how a study is conducted. As described in Chapter 1, the research question is the primary guide for specifying a research design. Chapter 5 presents several of the most often used basic designs. However, many variations of those designs, as well as other design formulations, may be employed. It often happens that while the ...

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