Teach students how to construct a viable research project based on online sources. Gabe Ignatow and Rada Mihalcea’s An Introduction to Text Mining: Research Design, Data Collection, and Analysis provides a foundation for readers seeking a solid introduction to mining text data. The book covers the most critical issues that must be taken into consideration for research projects, including web scraping and crawling, strategic data selection, data sampling, use of specific text analysis methods, and report writing. In addition to covering technical aspects of various approaches to contemporary text mining and analysis, the book covers ethical and philosophical dimensions of text-based research and social science research design.

Analyzing Metaphors

Learning Objectives

The goals of Chapter 12 are to help you to do the following:

  • Learn the basic concepts of cognitive metaphor theory (CMT).
  • Theorize why social scientists analyze metaphorical language and summarize different approaches.
  • Recognize the benefits and drawbacks of different strategies for analyzing metaphor.
  • Explore available software tools for metaphor analysis.


Like narratives (see Chapter 10) and themes (see Chapter 11), metaphors are common in everyday language and are arguably a basic element of human communication. The computer scientist and cognitive neuroscientist Feldman (2006) gave the example of the metaphor of “spinning your wheels,” which is able to communicate an amazing amount of information with just a few words:

Imagine yourself trying to teach the meaning and usage of a phrase like “spinning your wheels” to a ...

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