The Second Edition of An Applied Guide to Research Designs offers researchers in the social and behavioral sciences guidance for selecting the most appropriate research design to apply in their study. Using consistent terminology, the authors visually present a range of research designs used in quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods to help readers conceptualize, construct, test, and problem solve in their investigation. The Second Edition features revamped and expanded coverage of research designs, new real-world examples and references, a new chapter on action research, and updated ancillaries.

Ex Post Facto and Posttest-Only Designs

Another form of nonexperimental research is called the ex post facto (after the fact) design, sometimes referred to as causal-comparative research (the term causal-comparative is considered a misnomer). This widely misunderstood and underused design is an attempt at creating quasi-experimental research out of nonexperimental research. Ex post facto designs are used when the researcher cannot control the treatment variable (i.e., the treatment and control groups are selected after the treatment has occurred), and there are no pretest measures, while only a posttest is collected. Unlike all the designs in nonexperimental research, the ex post facto design is unique in that issues related to internal validity still should be considered when evaluating the outcomes. The major threats include history, ...

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