The Second Edition of An Applied Guide to Research Designs offers researchers in the social and behavioral sciences guidance for selecting the most appropriate research design to apply in their study. Using consistent terminology, the authors visually present a range of research designs used in quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods to help readers conceptualize, construct, test, and problem solve in their investigation. The Second Edition features revamped and expanded coverage of research designs, new real-world examples and references, a new chapter on action research, and updated ancillaries.

Solomon N-Group Design

The Solomon four-group design (Solomon, 1949) was developed specifically to combine the strengths of both types of between-subjects approaches (pretest only and the pretest and posttest design) as a means to minimize the weaknesses associated with using only one type. As a result, most of the major threats to internal validity (e.g., testing) and construct validity (e.g., pretest sensitization) are minimized. The inclusion of a control (or comparison) group to a research design can strengthen the internal validity and the overall validity of the findings. However, as noted earlier, there are strengths and costs in using between-subjects pretest and posttest control group designs compared to that of between-subjects posttest-only control group designs. The Solomon four-group design is an extension of the ...

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