The Second Edition of An Applied Guide to Research Designs offers researchers in the social and behavioral sciences guidance for selecting the most appropriate research design to apply in their study. Using consistent terminology, the authors visually present a range of research designs used in quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods to help readers conceptualize, construct, test, and problem solve in their investigation. The Second Edition features revamped and expanded coverage of research designs, new real-world examples and references, a new chapter on action research, and updated ancillaries.

Factorial Designs

An extension of the k-factor design is the factorial design. The simplest factorial design includes, at a minimum, two factors (i.e., independent variables), each with two levels (Kazdin, 2002; Vogt, 2005). Two factors each with two levels is designated as a 2 × 2 factorial design. Factorial designs are denoted by the form sk. The s represents the number of levels, and k represents the number of factors (e.g., 2 × 2 is the same as 22). Recall that a factor is another term for the independent variable, or treatment, or intervention.

Many k-factor designs can be transformed into factorial designs (based on theoretical and logistical considerations) by partitioning the factors into at least two levels and by subsequently changing the statistical analysis ...

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