The Second Edition of An Applied Guide to Research Designs offers researchers in the social and behavioral sciences guidance for selecting the most appropriate research design to apply in their study. Using consistent terminology, the authors visually present a range of research designs used in quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods to help readers conceptualize, construct, test, and problem solve in their investigation. The Second Edition features revamped and expanded coverage of research designs, new real-world examples and references, a new chapter on action research, and updated ancillaries.

Within-Subjects Approach

Major challenges when conducting research are often related to (a) access to participants and (b) an inability to randomly assign the participants to conditions. With these limitations in mind, researchers often employ a within-subjects approach. Although the pretest and posttest designs of between-subjects approaches include a within-subject component, the objective is not necessarily to test the within-subject variances as intended with within-subject approaches. The within-subjects approach to research assumes one group (or subject) serves in each of the treatment conditions.

This approach is referred to as repeated measures because participants are repeatedly measured across each condition. The advantage to this approach is that it can be used with smaller sample sizes with little or no error variance concerning individual differences between conditions (i.e., ...

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