The Second Edition of An Applied Guide to Research Designs offers researchers in the social and behavioral sciences guidance for selecting the most appropriate research design to apply in their study. Using consistent terminology, the authors visually present a range of research designs used in quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods to help readers conceptualize, construct, test, and problem solve in their investigation. The Second Edition features revamped and expanded coverage of research designs, new real-world examples and references, a new chapter on action research, and updated ancillaries.

Between-Subjects Approach

The between-subjects approach, also known as a multiple-group approach, allows a researcher to compare the effects of two or more groups on single or multiple dependent variables (outcome variables). With a minimum of two groups, the participants in each group will only be exposed to one condition (one level of the independent variable), with no crossover between conditions. An advantage of having multiple groups is that it allows for the (a) random assignment to different conditions (experimental research) and (b) comparison of different treatments. If the design includes two or more dependent variables, it can be referred to as a multivariate approach, and when the design includes one dependent variable, it is classified as univariate.

Pretest and Posttest Designs

A common application to experimental ...

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