KEY FEATURES: Introduces students to developing research questions and shows their importance in driving research design. Rarely taught topics, such as how to enter and clean data, offer students information missed in both research methods and statistics courses. Shows how to write up survey results for academic, business and nonprofit reports to alleviate the confusion students feel about how to write up findings. Rigorous treatment of sampling focuses on many sampling issues from probability theory to weighting. Offers the process of actually conducting a survey with advice on administering surveys, incentives, and improving response rates.

How Can Measurement Error Be Minimized?

Erin Ruel

There will always be some random measurement error; that is unavoidable. There should never be systematic measurement error in the study because that will make it a flawed study.

The best way to minimize measurement error is to devote considerable time and attention to the design of the survey questions. Follow all the rules of writing the best, unbiased, or non leading questions possible. Provide an exhaustive and mutually exclusive set of response categories. If a single question is too complicated, break it down into two or three simple questions. Write good, clear instructions for each question, and make sure to provide definitions to terms that anyone, regardless of education or background, can understand. Make sure to engage ...

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