KEY FEATURES: Introduces students to developing research questions and shows their importance in driving research design. Rarely taught topics, such as how to enter and clean data, offer students information missed in both research methods and statistics courses. Shows how to write up survey results for academic, business and nonprofit reports to alleviate the confusion students feel about how to write up findings. Rigorous treatment of sampling focuses on many sampling issues from probability theory to weighting. Offers the process of actually conducting a survey with advice on administering surveys, incentives, and improving response rates.

What Is Measurement Reliability, and How Is It Established?

Erin Ruel

Measurement reliability”is defined as consistency in responses to survey questions. We want a survey question to provide reliable data. That is, if the same person answered the same question multiple times, we would get consistent and dependable responses every time. Unlike validity, accuracy is less the aim than is consistency. However, if a survey question is unreliable, then it also will be invalid or full of error.

One type of reliability is called test–retest. This tests the reliability of results after repeated administration of the same question. A reliable survey question should produce a similar response over two points in time. There needs to be enough time between the repeated tests so that memory is ...

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