KEY FEATURES: Introduces students to developing research questions and shows their importance in driving research design. Rarely taught topics, such as how to enter and clean data, offer students information missed in both research methods and statistics courses. Shows how to write up survey results for academic, business and nonprofit reports to alleviate the confusion students feel about how to write up findings. Rigorous treatment of sampling focuses on many sampling issues from probability theory to weighting. Offers the process of actually conducting a survey with advice on administering surveys, incentives, and improving response rates.

# What Is the Measurement Level of a Survey Question, and Why Is That Important?

### What Is the Measurement Level of a Survey Question, and Why Is That Important?

Since we turn the responses to survey questions into variables to analyze to answer the research question, we must understand how the variables we create are measured. Measurement, in essence, is replacing text responses with numbers. Statistical analyses differ depending on the measurement level of the variables. There are four levels of measurement: (1) ratio, (2) interval, (3) ordinal, and (4) nominal. These four levels are rank ordered in terms of ability to analyze the variables with ratio measurement being the most flexible, and therefore, the most desirable.

Ratio measurement is the most precisely measured mathematically. These are variables like age or income that have continuous values ranging from zero, ...