KEY FEATURES: Introduces students to developing research questions and shows their importance in driving research design. Rarely taught topics, such as how to enter and clean data, offer students information missed in both research methods and statistics courses. Shows how to write up survey results for academic, business and nonprofit reports to alleviate the confusion students feel about how to write up findings. Rigorous treatment of sampling focuses on many sampling issues from probability theory to weighting. Offers the process of actually conducting a survey with advice on administering surveys, incentives, and improving response rates.

# How Do We Make Disproportionate Stratified Samples Representative of the Population?

### How Do We Make Disproportionate Stratified Samples Representative of the Population?

In Q28 we noticed that in a disproportionate stratified sample, some strata are overrepresented and others are underrepresented so that it no longer represents the population. In order to make the sample generalizable, we can create weights in all the statistical analyses that will bring the sample back to representativeness.

What are weights? Weights are the inverse of the probability of selection. Weights tell us how many population strata members each sample member represents. The last row of Table 29.1 provides the weights for each stratum. To calculate the weight, we simply divide 1 by the probability of selection for each stratum. The weight for Native Americans is 1/.11 = 9. This means ...

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