KEY FEATURES: Introduces students to developing research questions and shows their importance in driving research design. Rarely taught topics, such as how to enter and clean data, offer students information missed in both research methods and statistics courses. Shows how to write up survey results for academic, business and nonprofit reports to alleviate the confusion students feel about how to write up findings. Rigorous treatment of sampling focuses on many sampling issues from probability theory to weighting. Offers the process of actually conducting a survey with advice on administering surveys, incentives, and improving response rates.

What Is Random Sampling Error?

Erin Ruel

As mentioned in Q22, random sampling error is the difference between the population mean and sample mean of some variable. A sample collected using a random sampling method from a known population distribution will be representative of the population, but it will not exactly replicate the population. In fact, if we drew two independent and random samples of 1,000 college students and averaged their GPAs, the average GPA from each sample would likely not be the same. Nor would either sample exactly match the population mean GPA level.

In Table 23.1, we calculate the sampling error as the population mean less the sample mean. Sample 1 and Sample 2 have sampling error or variability in opposite directions and of ...

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