KEY FEATURES: Introduces students to developing research questions and shows their importance in driving research design. Rarely taught topics, such as how to enter and clean data, offer students information missed in both research methods and statistics courses. Shows how to write up survey results for academic, business and nonprofit reports to alleviate the confusion students feel about how to write up findings. Rigorous treatment of sampling focuses on many sampling issues from probability theory to weighting. Offers the process of actually conducting a survey with advice on administering surveys, incentives, and improving response rates.

How Does Probability Work?

Generally speaking, probability theory, sampling theory, and a statistical theorem called the Central Limit Theorem explain how a probability sample can represent the population. We will start with probability theory.

If we flip a coin, what is the probability tails will appear rather than heads? There is a 50% probability or chance that tails will appear. How did we get that? There are two sides to a coin, so the denominator for this event is 2. There is one event, tails, so the numerator is 1. We divide 1 by 2 and get .50 or 50%. Probability, then, measures the likelihood that one event will occur out of all possible outcomes. Probability ranges between 0 and 1 with 0 meaning ...