KEY FEATURES: Introduces students to developing research questions and shows their importance in driving research design. Rarely taught topics, such as how to enter and clean data, offer students information missed in both research methods and statistics courses. Shows how to write up survey results for academic, business and nonprofit reports to alleviate the confusion students feel about how to write up findings. Rigorous treatment of sampling focuses on many sampling issues from probability theory to weighting. Offers the process of actually conducting a survey with advice on administering surveys, incentives, and improving response rates.

What Are the Main Ethical Concerns of Research?

What Are the Main Ethical Concerns of Research?

Erin Ruel

Research ethics are primarily concerned with three aspects of research, as found in Table 8.1: (1) the research participants themselves, (2) the data collected from the participants, and (3) how we present our findings.

Table 8.1 Areas of Ethical Concern for Researchers

Ethics Area

Ethics Issues

Research Subjects

Do no harm, informed consent, minimizing risks, maximizing benefits


Clear documentation, transparency, and replicability

Presenting Findings

Responsible interpretations of the data, sticking close to the data

Most ethical issues in research come from medical research, in which people can be physically harmed by participating. However, all researchers are expected to do no harm to human subjects. Or, if there is potential harm, we need to minimize the harm and maximize the benefits of conducting the research. ...

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