KEY FEATURES: Introduces students to developing research questions and shows their importance in driving research design. Rarely taught topics, such as how to enter and clean data, offer students information missed in both research methods and statistics courses. Shows how to write up survey results for academic, business and nonprofit reports to alleviate the confusion students feel about how to write up findings. Rigorous treatment of sampling focuses on many sampling issues from probability theory to weighting. Offers the process of actually conducting a survey with advice on administering surveys, incentives, and improving response rates.

How Do We Describe Charts and Tables in the Report?

Erin Ruel

If a picture is worth a thousand words, a table or chart must be worth at least 500 words. If that is the case, why can’t the table or chart stand alone? Why must it be described in words as well? Charts and tables, like pictures, contain many messages and they can stand alone. But pictures are art, and the artists want each member of the audience to walk away with their own interpretation of the picture—their own individual understanding of it. If working within a particular discipline, check the style guidelines on producing charts and figures (e.g., APA).

Tables and charts might feel like art given all the time spent to produce them, ...

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