KEY FEATURES: Introduces students to developing research questions and shows their importance in driving research design. Rarely taught topics, such as how to enter and clean data, offer students information missed in both research methods and statistics courses. Shows how to write up survey results for academic, business and nonprofit reports to alleviate the confusion students feel about how to write up findings. Rigorous treatment of sampling focuses on many sampling issues from probability theory to weighting. Offers the process of actually conducting a survey with advice on administering surveys, incentives, and improving response rates.

# How Do We Assess Association Between Two Categorical Variables?

### How Do We Assess Association Between Two Categorical Variables?

Working with categorical variables can be a little challenging because the numbers assigned to each category are meaningless. To assess the association, we run a procedure called a cross-tabulation or crosstabs. Table 85.1 provides a crosstabs between race and wealth with wealth measured dichotomously as having assets worth less than \$10K or \$10K or more. The first number in each box is a count of all the respondents that fit in the two categories that bisect that box or cell. For example, there are 1,096 whites with less than \$10K in assets. The second number in each box is the column percentage.

To determine if there is an association, we look at the percentages rather ...