KEY FEATURES: Introduces students to developing research questions and shows their importance in driving research design. Rarely taught topics, such as how to enter and clean data, offer students information missed in both research methods and statistics courses. Shows how to write up survey results for academic, business and nonprofit reports to alleviate the confusion students feel about how to write up findings. Rigorous treatment of sampling focuses on many sampling issues from probability theory to weighting. Offers the process of actually conducting a survey with advice on administering surveys, incentives, and improving response rates.

How Are Open-Ended Questions Coded?

Erin Ruel

Open-ended question are wonderful for providing information in the participants’ own words. Unfortunately, we need to turn them into numerical codes if we want to analyze the responses with the rest of the data. The coding process starts by reading all the open-ended responses carefully, several times. Over a couple of reads, themes may begin to emerge. This helps coders to understand how participants are understanding the question. Researchers often use either: NVivo, Atlas, dedoose, or NUDIST software to help code open-ended questions.

Next, develop an initial set of codes as a way of sorting or grouping the open-ended responses and code the open-ended responses. Do it in a spreadsheet with the codes in one column and text responses ...

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