In an increasingly data-driven world, it is more important than ever for students as well as professionals to better understand basic statistical concepts. 100 Questions (and Answers) About Statistics addresses the essential questions that students ask about statistics in a concise and accessible way. It is perfect for instructors, students, and practitioners as a supplement to more comprehensive materials, or as a desk reference with quick answers to the most frequently asked questions.

# What Is Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA), and How Is It Used?

### What Is Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA), and How Is It Used?

You won’t be surprised to learn that there are many different renditions of analysis of variance (ANOVA), each one designed to fit a particular “comparing the averages of more than two groups” situation. One of these, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), is used when there is more than one dependent variable. So, instead of looking just at one outcome, one examines more than one outcome or dependent variable. What MANOVA does is to control for the relationship between outcome variables so that, if there is an effect, it is clear what impact the treatment has on what variables.

For example, Jonathan Plucker from Indiana University examined gender, race, and grade differences in how ...