In an increasingly data-driven world, it is more important than ever for students as well as professionals to better understand basic statistical concepts. 100 Questions (and Answers) About Statistics addresses the essential questions that students ask about statistics in a concise and accessible way. It is perfect for instructors, students, and practitioners as a supplement to more comprehensive materials, or as a desk reference with quick answers to the most frequently asked questions.

# How Do the Null and Research Hypotheses Differ From One Another?

### How Do the Null and Research Hypotheses Differ From One Another?

The null and research hypotheses differ from one another in several very important ways.

First, the null hypothesis is a statement of equality, while the research hypothesis is a statement of inequality.

Second, null hypotheses are typically unstated in journal articles and research reports, while research hypotheses are explicitly stated early in an article or report.

Third, null hypotheses refer to populations, while research hypotheses refer to samples. A sample of participants from the population is selected, and the research hypothesis is tested using that sample. Then, the results can be inferred or generalized to the population.

Fourth, null hypotheses are always stated using population parameters, as in this example:

${\text{H}}_{0}:{\phantom{\rule{0.5em}{0ex}}µ}_{1}={\phantom{\rule{0.5em}{0ex}}µ}_{2}$

This means that the average of population 1 ...