Researchers who fraudulently or misleadingly report data engage in behavior that at best is unprofessional and at worst is unethical and illegal. In this entry, fraudulent data are defined as made up and/or falsely reported data. Misleading data are data manipulated or otherwise modified so that the presentation misrepresents true research results. This entry offers an overview of fraudulent and misleading data, describes potential consequences of this practice, and identifies ways to minimize this form of research misconduct.
Researchers can tamper with data when they record, report, or use data for instructional purposes. According to federal guidelines for research misconduct, “current, make federal guidelines for research misconduct” the use of fraudulent or misleading data is in violation of U.S. federal ...
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