Constructed-response items refer to a wide range of test items that require examinees to produce answers in various formats; they are often contrasted or compared to multiple-choice (or selected-response) items in which examinees are required to select one or multiple appropriate options out of a given list. In practice, any items that do not take the selected response item format (e.g., multiple-choice or true/false items) can be referred to as constructed-response items. The term itself does not refer to a single format of items but implies flexibility in item formats. Because of this flexibility, “items” can be extended to “tasks” or “exercises” that are included not only in a written test but also in a performance test. The Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing defines ...
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