In educational assessment, alignment refers to how well assessments measure what is taught or intended to be taught. In 2002, Norman Webb described alignment as the “extent to which expectations and assessments are in agreement and serve in conjunction with one another to guide the system toward students learning what they are expected to know and do” (p. 1). This entry discusses the models used to measure and understand alignment and the reasons why alignment is important.

Most alignment models consider the match or overlap between curriculum (in the form of content standards or curriculum guides), tests or other assessment tools, and classroom instruction. Because of this, measures of alignment are best thought of as a form of content-related evidence of validity. According to Stephen Haynes, ...

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