Values are abstract principles about what is worth doing in life and how life should be lived. For example, achievement is a value that describes what is worth doing (e.g., working hard, learning) and how life ought to be lived (e.g., through striving for success such as through hard work and goal setting). Values are typically measured by having respondents rank the personal importance of a set of listed values. By collecting large samples of such responses, intervalue systems can be extrapolated (e.g., that valuing achievement is associated with valuing power). Understanding the origins and consequences of values has significance for educational research in that values help determine and prioritize the academic and life goals of people such as students and teachers and can ...

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