Test bias is one of the most important issues in the development of measures. However, it is often confused with fairness. On one hand, [Page 1668]fairness is a social concept that is concerned with whether one views test scores as being used in an appropriate manner. There is no right way to examine whether test scores are used appropriately, as this is based on an individual’s subjective perception. On the other hand, bias is viewed as a statistical issue and is concerned about whether there is systematic error in measuring a trait or attribute across groups. If systematic differences due to group membership on a test exist, this would suggest that bias is present in the test. This article outlines several methods used to examine ...
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