Karl Pearson (1857–1936) is credited with establishing the discipline of mathematical statistics. Building on earlier work by Francis Galton (1822–1911), one of Pearson’s major contributions to the field was the development of the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (or Pearson correlation, for short), which is often denoted by r. The correlation is one of the most common and useful statistics. The Pearson correlation, a measure of the relationship often between two continuous variables, is utilized throughout quantitative research in education and the social sciences. This entry is devoted to describing what the Pearson correlation is; the steps used to calculate it; the interpretation of its size, direction, and level of [Page 1229]statistical significance; its data assumptions; and its limitations.
Put simply, the Pearson ...
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