A large range of instruments are used in educational research and practice. Instrumentation refers to the nature and use of such instruments. Consideration of instrumentation is imperative to ensure that evidence has desirable psychometric properties. Measurement invariance is among the properties most important for good assessment and has received attention in the scientific literature. This entry provides a brief overview of educational instruments, discusses measurement invariance, and reviews examples and key research.

Instrumentation varies depending on the phenomena being assessed and the purpose of assessment. Questionnaires may be deployed in surveys to assess practical or subjective things. Schedules may be used to structure interviews that generate qualitative data. Tests may be used in exams to assess knowledge or skill. Scenarios may be used in performance ...

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