Much of science, and indeed, art and humanistic philosophy, has been borne out of misery. Medicine sought to heal the sick, philosophy sought to seek meaning in the incomprehensible loneliness of meaninglessness, poetry and art often sought solace and reflection in the tragedy of love lost and epic conflicts, and the sciences often sought solutions to the many hazards of everyday survival. Such pursuits, however, often became yoked to the pursuit of happiness, and the ideals of perfection, symmetry, order, and a more fulfilling life. By the middle of the 20th century, much of psychology, which had been strongly influenced by medical models of illness and disorder, began a reformation in the direction of a more positive psychology, in which humanistic ideals of ...
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