Controversial experiments are projects involving human participants that lead to a questioning of the ethical design and implementation of the project. Ethics are understood as a set of moral guidelines. In the instance of a controversial experiment, the moral treatment of the human (or other living) participants has been an issue of concern. Numerous projects in social and medical sciences rely [Page 255]on the use of human participants to observe a phenomenon, study behaviors under certain conditions, and establish the effectiveness of medical treatments. However, the experiment must ensure the physical, mental, and emotional health of participants. Researchers need to reduce and alleviate risks to participants both during and after the experiment. In cases when risk cannot be avoided, it should be minimized, ...
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