A survey and interpretation of the research findings (the “literature”) on a particular topic, usually designed to prepare for undertaking further research on the subject. The literature review is often done a second time to help one interpret unexpected results. A ∗meta-analysis is a literature review in which the completeness of the survey is stressed, and statistical techniques are used to summarize the findings. Meta-analyses are sometimes called “systematic” reviews and are often contrasted with “traditional” or “narrative” reviews. Also called “research review.”

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