The universe consists of all survey elements that qualify for inclusion in the research study. The precise definition of the universe for a particular study is set by the research question, which specifies who or what is of interest. The universe may be individuals, groups of people, organizations, or even objects. For example, research about voting in an upcoming election would have a universe comprising all voters. If the research was about political parties' sponsorship of candidates, the research would include all political parties. In research that involves taking a sample of things for testing or review, the universe may include inanimate objects. For example, a researcher may want to determine the extent to which toys made in a particular country contain a certain type ...

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