A t-test is a statistical process to assess the probability that a particular characteristic (the mean) of two populations is different. It is particularly useful when data are available for only a portion of one or both populations (known as a sample). In such a case, a t-test will enable an estimate of whether any differences in means between the two groups are reflective of differences in the respective populations or are simply due to chance. This statistical process is called a t-test because it uses a t-distribution to generate the relevant probabilities, typically summarized in a t-table.

There are many types of t-tests, each of which is appropriate for a particular context and nature of the data to be analyzed. Each t-test has its own ...

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